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Posts: 69

Questions about our products?

What is the difference between CR and DR?

Computed Radiography is an older method of taking X-ray. With CR, the process of taking an X-ray starts with shooting an X-ray onto a CR plate. Then removing the cassette from the CR plate and running the cassette through a CR reader. Then the reader produces a digital image on computer which then can be sent to PACS. Digital Radiography (DR) is the ideal method of taking X-ray. With DR, the process starts the same but you shoot X-ray onto a DR detector. This detector captures the image directly and transfers the image to a computer workstation so that you can preview the image in 5-10 seconds. From this image you can do various manipulations using the digital tools and then send it to PACS.

What does the DQE and IPX rating on DR detectors mean?

The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) describes how effectively an x-ray imaging system can produce an image with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relative to an ideal detector. Essentially higher signal with low noise is the ideal ratio for a quality image thus the higher the DQE the better the image quality.
IPX is the terminology that describes how water proof something is. For example, IPX 6 is this and IPX 7 I that.

What is a high/low table?

An X-ray table that can float up and down in the Y axis. This feature is ideal for high volume clinics and orthopedic clinics that deal with non-ambulatory patients. Lowering the table makes it easy for patients to get on the table and then the RT can elevate the table to the right examination height. This high/low feature is often an option you must specific when deciding on what table you want.

What is a Floor Mounted Tube Head vs. an Overhead Tube Crane?

A Floor Mounted System is the more cost effective solution but has limited mobility compared to that of an overhead tube crane.


What is PACS and do I need it?

PACS or Picture Archiving System is a system to store DICOM images, and DICOM is the type of file that X-ray images are saved as. You can have a physical PACS which functions similar to that of a computer with a hard drive. Or you can have a virtual PACS where images are saved in the cloud and can be accessed on multiple computers or web browser via cloud. For both, PACS allows you to add more meta data to the DICOM image, as well send and query images.

What is Fluoroscopy?

Fluoroscopy is a technique that uses a continuous X-ray beam or a series of short X-rays shots to form a series of images that can be strung together like a movie. Fluoroscopy is used in a wide variety of examinations and procedures to diagnose or treat patients. Some examples are: Barium X-rays and enemas, catheter insertion, placement of devices within the body, angiograms, and rthopedic surgery (to guide joint replacements and treatment of fractures).

What is Tomosynthesis?

The term ”tomosynthesis” merges ‘tomography’ and ‘synthesis’. It is a special type of imaging technology that fuses cone-beam CT-like reconstruction algorithms with digital X-ray image processing to produce images of specified cross-sections from a single shot. Since the images of a specific cross-section can be reconstructed from a single low-dose tomography scan motion only, this technique requires less time and a lower X-ray dose to obtain multiple-slice images than conventional linear tomography like a CT.

Who is Canon and Virtual Imaging?

Canon is the gold standard when it comes to digital detectors with the best image quality and workflow tools in the industry. They develop wireless Digital detectors that come at different sizes. Virtual Imaging is the Canon distributor for North America. Canon detectors are being used in the VA’s, military basses, and some of the largest hospital systems in the country.

Who is Konika Minolta?

Konika as an emerging player in the Digital radiology field with their own product line including U-arms and mobile machines. They focus more on building durable digital detectors that provide customers ease of use and can be paired with other X-ray systems from other manufacturers.

Who is Del Medical?

X-ray manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois. They provide their own line of products including tables, detectors, generators, and tubes. For tubes they provide a Floor Mounted option or a Ceiling Mounted option.

Who is Shimadzu?
Shimadzu is a Japanese company that focuses on radiology as well as scientific research instrumentation. They consistently rank as the #1 brand in mobiles and Radio/Fluoro rooms amongst different rating organizations such as M.D. Buyline and KLAS.

Questions about an X-ray Room

What does incoming power mean and how can I check mine?

Incoming power is the voltage that is supplied to the building. It is the power that provides electricity to the whole building. There are 3 types of incoming power with two types of phases it comes in: 208, 240, 480 volts at either single phase or triple phase for each respectively. It is important to know what type of incoming power you have as the X-ray equipment must be compatible. To find out your incoming power you should go to the main breaker for the building and it should list this info. Or if you have existing X-ray equipment you can find this info printed on a label on the back of the existing X-ray generator.

What are the requirements for an X-ray Room?

Generally, there are a few things to consider: size, flooring, and lead. What type of surface is the equipment being placed on: wood, concrete, concrete slab on grade. Ceiling height is important to ensure the equipment will fit in the room. Space is also important; will the equipment fit in the room while still maintaining enough space for the patient to move comfortably. Will the equipment fit in all the hallways and paths that lead to the Rad Room? All rooms will have to meet ADA requirements which means there has to be moving space as wide as 2.5 ft. for wheel chair access. Lastly, you need to know if there is lead in the walls or if that is something that will need to be added.

Lead Shielding?

To create a safe X-ray room environment, the walls, and possibly ceiling, need to have lead in them. Lead, because of its high molecular density, is effective at stopping gamma and X-rays. Having lead in the walls prevents scattered X-rays from harming patients, providers, and people in adjacent and surrounding spaces. To complete this task, you will need to hire a physicist to determine how much lead will be required and then you can find a sub-contractor to complete the work. This has to be done before any X-ray equipment can be installed in the room.

Questions about X-ray

What is X-ray?

X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray creates an image of the inside of your body that the parts of your body in different shades of black and white. This is because different tissues absorb different amounts of radiation. Bones absorb the radiation so they appear white in the images.

What is technique, MAs, and KV?

Technique is the term used to describe the mAs and KV used for a certain X-ray study. Before you shoot an X-ray you determine the technique by setting the mAs and kV. Choosing the right technique is a skill that comes with experience.
mAs (milliamperage per second) is essentially the electrical current supplied to the X-ray tube. The more MAs the more current is drawn to the X-ray tube which eventually leads to more X-rays. It is the contributing factor to dose, so lower this and you can clearly illustrate a lower dose. mAs is directly related to optical density so lower the mAs and you lower the optical density.
kV has to do with the strength/penetrability of the electricity meaning a higher kV produces a stronger X-ray that can penetrate thicker or more dense surfaces (such as the mediastinum). Decreasing the kV will increase the image contrast.
mAs is like the quantity of X-ray and the kV is like the quality of the X-ray.

What is optical density and image contrast?

Optical density is the amount of black in the overall image. It indicates how much X-ray passed through the patient and got collected on the detector. kV and mAs are both directly related to density but mAs has a larger affect.
Image contrast is inversely related to the number of shades you can see on an x-ray image. A high contrast image has extreme bright areas and extreme dark areas with few shades of grey in between. A low contrast image has many shades of gray and are refered to as long gray scale. If the kV is too high the X-ray blows through the patient and produces a highly dense image with low contrast so the images will not show the bones clearly and you will lose the ability to see the bone trabecular pattern. Increasing the kV and the mAs will decrease the image contrast. The fine art is to have the right mAs and kV while maintaining a high contrast.

What is Dose area product (DAP)?

It is a quantity used in assessing the radiation risk from diagnostic X-ray examinations and interventional procedures. It is defined as the absorbed dose multiplied by the area irradiated, expressed in gray-centimeters squared. DAP reflects not only the dose within the radiation field but also the area of tissue irradiated. Therefore, it may be a better indicator of the overall risk of inducing cancer than the dose within the field. It also has the advantages of being easily measured, with the permanent installation of a DAP meter on the X-ray set. The lower the DAP

What is EI and DI?

EI is the exposure index which indicates the amount of radiation dose reaching the detector.
EL is the ideal amount of radiation for the study
DI is the deviation index which indicates how far the EI is from the El. A DI Value of +3 indicates 2x more than the correct mAs was used.


Common Terms:

PACS: Picture archiving and communication systems

RIS: Radiology information systems
-Software that connects the radiology department patient registration software (patient info) to X-ray work stations

HIS: hospital information systems
- Software that connects the hospital patient registration software (patient info) to X-ray work stations

DICOM: Digital imagining communication of medicine
-The most up to date version is 3.1. Radiographic Images are saved as a DICOM file.

DICOM Worklist: Where patient information is stored on the X-ray workstation. The information from the RIS or HIS is sent to the Worklist.

DICOM Store Class: The connection between the workstation to the PACS that allows for transferring.
edited by Kevinj on 12/6/2016

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